# Шпаргалка з курсу Англійська мова – 36 питань

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Код роботи: 1216

Вид роботи: Шпаргалка

Предмет: Англійська мова

Тема: 36 питань

Кількість сторінок: 64

Дата виконання: 2016

Мова написання: англійська

Ціна: безкоштовно

1. Morphology and syntax as two main parts of grammar

2. Language as a structure. Language levels. The notion of isomorphism

3. Systemic relations in language. Syntagmatic relations

4. Systemic relations in language. Paradigmatic relations

5. Linguistic units. Dialectical unity of content and expression sides of linguistic units

6. The morphome as an elementary meaningful unit and elementary part of the word

7. Classification of morphemes. Lexical and grammatical morphemes

8. The word as the smallest naming unit and the main unit of morphology. The morphological structure of the word

9. Grammatical (morphological) categories

10. Criteria for establishing part of speech: semantic, formal, functional. Notional, functional and form parts of speech

11. The noun as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant classes of nouns. Morphological, semantic and syntactic properties of the noun

12. The category of number. Formal and functional features of the category of number. The problem of number in different subclasses of the noun

13. The category of case. The evolution of theoretical interpretations of the category of case in English

14. The problem of gender in English. Personal pronouns as gender classificators of noun. Sex distinctions in the system of the noun

15. General characteristics of the verb as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant subclasses of verbs (transitive-intransitive, terminative/non-terminative)

16. Syntagmatic properties of verbs

17. Finite and non-finite forms of the verb. The category of finitude

18. The verbal category of person. The verbal category of number

19. The category of tense in English. Tense oppositions. Absolute and relative meanings of English tense-forms

20. The problems of perfect

21. The category of aspect. Aspect opposition

22. The category of voice. Voice opposition. The number of voices in English

23. The category of mood. The problem of mood opposition. Modality

24. Syntax as a part of grammar. Kinds of syntactic theories

25. Basic syntactic notions. Syntactic units, syntactic relations, syntactic connections

26. Coordination. The notion of parataxis. The word-group theory

27. Subordinate word combinations. The notion of hypotaxis

28. Syntactic processes

29. Nominal word combinations. Noun phrases with preposed adjuncts

30. Nominal word combinations. Noun phrases with postposed adjuncts

31. Verbal word combinations. Verbs of complete and incomplete predication. Types of verbal complements

32. Predication. Primary and secondary predication. Predicative word combinations, predicative complexes. Syntactic process of complication

33. The simple sentence. Principal, secondary and detached parts of the sentence

34. Simple and complex parts of the sentence

35. The paradigm of a simple sentence. Kernel and derived sentences. Syntactic processes

36. Complex sentence as a polypredicative construction. Types of subordinate clauses

## 1. Morphology and syntax as two main parts of grammar

Grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

The subject matter of morphology is the grammatical classes and groups of words, their grammatical categories and systems of forms (paradigms) in which these categories actually exist.

The word as a grammatical unit has its meaning and form.

Syntax examines the ways in which words may be combined and the relationships that exist between the words in combination.

Morphology is inadequate alone, because relatively few kinds of English words are subject to morphological variation. Syntax alone will not do either partly because there are borderline word-forms and phrases not indisputably assigned to any class.

In importance morphology is far inferior to syntax in Modern English. Of words in Modern English not over one fourth possess any distinctive morphological form, the others being of a common neutral morphological character, and their syntax or context alone can determine their number, case or tense: sheep, deer, set, cost, put. The structure of a language is to a large extent conditioned by its system of formal oppositions proceeding from which we generally identify the morphological classes of words.

## 2. Language as a structure. Language levels. The notion of isomorphism

Language is knowledge, a code which is known and shared by speakers who use their knowledge for transmitting and interpreting verbal messages. Language is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language is social by nature; it is inseparably connected with the people who are its creators and users; it grows and develops together with the development of society.

Language incorporates the three constituent parts (“sides”), each being inherent in it by virtue of its social nature. These parts are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Only the unity of these three elements forms a language; without any one of them there is no human language in the above sense.

The phonological system is the subfoundation of language; it determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significative units and includes phonemes, speech sounds, syllables, word-stress, and intonation. The lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language, that is, words and stable word-groups. The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances as the embodiment of thinking process.

Grammar investigates morphology and syntax. Morphology has for its objects morphemes, parts of speech, morphological categories. Syntax studies word-groups, sentences and syntactic types of their connection.

Language is a structural system. Structure means hierarchical layering of parts in constituting the whole. In the structure of language there are four main structural levels: phonological, morphological, syntactical and supersyntatical. The levels are represented by the corresponding level units.

Levels – Units – Definitions

Phonological – phoneme – the smallest distinctive unit

Morphological – morpheme – the smallest meaningful unit – word – the smallest naming unit

Syntactical – word combination – sentence – the smallest communicative unit

Super syntactical – text

Level of language – Branch of language study

The sound of spoken language: the way words are pronounced – Phonology; phonetics.

The patterns of written language; the shape of language on the page – Graphology.

The way words are constructed; words and their constituent structures – Morphology.

The way words combine with other words to form phrases and sentences – Syntax; grammar.

The words we use; the vocabulary of a language – Lexical analysis; lexicology.

The meaning of words and sentences – Semantics.

The way words and sentences are used in everyday situations; the meaning of language in context – Pragmatics; discourse analysis.

Language: potential, ideal, general

Speech: actual, concrete, individual

Language: natural, open, used by all, a system of denotators, signs may have several meanings, universal.

Isomorphism – parallelism in the organization of the phonic and semantic aspects of a language. Isomorphism in linguistics can be seen as a variant of more higher, general principle of “one meaning, one form”. which is as old as European linguistics.

It is well known that young children reject such phenomena as homonymy and synonymy. Why shouldn’t the word “bank” referred to a building (financial institution) as well as to a riverside? As to synonymy, its very existence is often disputed: real synonymy is claimed not to occur. As to homonymy, it has been ascertained that when homonymy starts disturbing communication, borrowing and innovation are used to undo it.

## 3. Systemic relations in language. Syntagmatic relations

A linguistic unit enters into syntagmatic relations with other units of the same level it occurs with. SR exist at every language level. They can be of 3 different types: coordinate, subordinate and predicative.

Coordinate SR exist between the homogeneous linguistic units that ax that is, they are the relations of independence: you and me; They were tired but happy.

Subordinated SR are the relations of dependence when one linguistic unit depends on the othex- teach + er - morphological level; a smart student - word-group level; predicative and subordinate clauses - sentence level. Predicative SR are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary.

Systemic relations:

a) Paradigmatic relations (PR) exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur.

- PR formal

- PR semantic

- PR functional

- PR mixed

b) Syntagmatic Relations (SR) are immediate linear relations between elements in a segmental sequence.

Relations:

- types: SR dependence (coordination)

- kinds: symmetric, asymmetric, homogeneous elements

Connections:

- forms: copulative, dsjunctive, adversative, causative-consecutive

- means: syndetic, asyndetic

Relations:

- types: SR independence (subordination)

Connections:

- forms: agreement, government, adjoinment, enclosure

- means: prepositions, word-order

Relations:

- types: SR interdependence (predication)

- kinds: primary, secondary

Connections:

- forms: subject-predicate agreement

- means: inflections, word-order

## 4. Systemic relations in language. Paradigmatic relations

The paradigm is a set of all possible forms of one and the same linguistic unit.

PR

PR1 formal

speaker

speakers

speaker’s

speakers’

PR2 semantic

Synonyms, antonyms, topical connections:

e.g. Verbs of motion: go, move, come, cross, return, etc.

Furniture items: bed, chair, table, wardrobe, etc.

PR3 functional

- A

- The all these elements

- This book(s) have the same

functional feature

of Noun determiners.

- That

- All

- Some

PR4 mixed (functional + semantic)

- The boy is here.

- He is here.

- All are here.

- Three are here.

- N-like elements

## 5. Linguistic units. Dialectical unity of content and expression sides of linguistic units

Language is regarded as a system of elements (or: signs, units) such as sounds, words, etc. System implies the characterization of a complex object as made up of separate parts (e.g. the system of sounds). Language is a structural system. Structure means hierarchical layering of parts in constituting the whole. In the structure of language there are four main structural levels: phonological, morphological, syntactical and supersyntatical. The levels are represented by the corresponding level units:

The phonological level is the lowest level. The phonological level unit is thephoneme. It is a distinctive unit (bag – back).

The morphological level has two level units:

the morpheme – the lowest meaningful unit (teach – teacher);

the word - the main naming (nominative) unit of language.

The syntactical level has two level units as well:

the word-group – the dependent syntactic unit;

the sentence – the main communicative unit.

The supersyntactical level has the text as its level unit.

Any linguistic unit is a double entity. It unites a concept and a sound image. The two elements are intimately united and each recalls the other. Accordingly, we distinguish the content side and the expression side. The forms of linguistic units bear no natural resemblance to their meaning. The link between them is a matter of convention, and conventions differ radically across languages. Thus, the English word ‘dog’ happens to denote a particular four-footed domesticated creature, the same creature that is denoted in Ukrainian by the completely different form. Neither form looks like a dog, or sounds like one.

Linguistic units

The Phoneme

has no meaning

differentiates morphemes and words

is not a sign, e.g. sheep - ship.

The Morpheme

the elementary meaningful part of a word

' not an autonomous unit

The Word

is a direct name of things

it is the main expressive unit of language, which ensures

the thought-forming function of language

The Phrase

is a combination of two or more notional words

it represents the referent as a complicated phenomenon, e.g.: a smart child, you and me

The Sentence

expresses predication, i.e. shows the relation of the denoted event to reality

is the main communicative unit

The Text

is the highest language unit, a combination of separate

sentences connected logically and semantically

## 6. The morphome as an elementary meaningful unit and elementary part of the word

Morpheme. Is the smallest language unit that carries a semantic interpretation. Morphemes are, generally, a distinctive collocation of phonemes (as the free form pin or the bound form –s of pins) having no smaller meaningful members.

Types of morphemes. Free morphemes like town, dog can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, or “free”. Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme, e.g. the plural marker in Bound morphemes like “un-“ appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Morphemes existing in only one bound form are known as “cranberry” morphemes, from the “cran” in that very word. Inflectional morphemes modify a word’s tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs). Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of “-ness” to “happy,” for example, to give “happiness.”

## 7. Classification of morphemes. Lexical and grammatical morphemes

The Morpheme (Greek – morphe “form” + -eme “conditionally smallest distinctive unit”) is the smallest meaningful unit having a sound form and occurring in speech only as a part of a word. Morphemes are two facet units, having meaning and sound form.

Morphemes on are divided into root-morphemes (roots; lexical center of a word) and affixal morphemes (affixes; inflections and derivational affixes). The roots express the concrete, “material” part of the meaning of the word, while the affixes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word. The root is obligatory for any word, while affixes are not obligatory.

The affixes prefixes, suffixes, and inflections. Inflection (functional affix, ending, outer formative) is an affixal morpheme, carrying just grammatical meaning – forming word forms (like – likes). Derivational morpheme is an affixal morpheme, modifying the lexical meaning of the root – forming a new word (fight – fighter). Often it changes the part-of-speech meaning of the root.

Derivational affixes are split into prefixes (un-changeable); suffixes (unchange-able); infixes (stand - stood); semi-suffixes (-man, -like, -proof, -wise).

Stem (stem base) is the part of the word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. It expresses the lexical and the part-of-speech meaning of the word.

Allomorphs (“morpheme variants”) are phonemic variants of the given morpheme: legal – illegal, moral – immoral, relevant – irrelevant; justice – injustice.

Classification of morphemes

According to meaning

- lexical (roots): sing, pen, boy;

- grammatical (inflections): sings, pens, boys;

According to form

- free (can stand an individual words in their outright): sad, bamboo;

- bound (depend on their meaning on being conjoined to other items): disfunction, useless;

- semi-bound (can function as a free morpheme and as a bound morpheme): a man of forty – mankind.

According to linear characteristics

- continuous (linear): lived;

- discontinuous: be + …ing; be/have + …en.

## 8. The word as the smallest naming unit and the main unit of morphology. The morphological structure of the word

A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together. Typically a word will consist of a root or stem and zero or more affixes. Words can be combined to create phrases, clauses and sentences. A word consisting of two or more stems joined together is called a compound. As the word is the main unit of traditional grammatical theory, it serves the basis of the distinction which is frequently drawn between morphology and syntax. Morphology deals with the internal structure of words, peculiarities of their grammatical categories and their semantics while traditional syntax deals with the rules governing combination of words in sentences (and texts in modern linguistics). We can therefore say that the word is the main unit of morphology. It is also the basic nominative unit of language with the help of which the naming function of language is realized. One of the most characteristic features of the word is its indivisibility(неподільність). As any other linguistic unit the word is a bilateral entity. It unites a concept and a sound image and thus has 2 sides - the content and expression sides: concept and sound form.

If we describe a word as an autonomous unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex and which is capable of a particular grammatical employment and able to form a sentence by itself , we have the possibility to distinguish it from the other fundamental language unit, namely, the morpheme.

The word is the main expressive unit of human language which ensures the thought-forming function of language, the basic nominative unit language.

Word=content\(поділити на) expression=

Words can be:

- monomorphic (consisting of only one root morpheme: boss, cell)

- polymorphic (consisting of at least ne root morpheme and a number of derivational affixes: creator, body-shaping)

- derived words are composed of one root morpheme and at least one derivational morpheme: fight – fighter)

- compound words contain at least two root morphemes: policeman, madhouse)

2. Basic syntactic notions. Syntactic units, syntactic relations, syntactic connections.

The relation between a unit and other units (inner relations between units). No unit can be used independently; it serves as an element in the system of other units. This kind of meaning is called syntactic. Formal relation of units to one another is studied by syntactics (or syntax). Only inner (syntactic) relations between linguistic units served the basis for linguistic analysis while the reference of words to the objective reality and language users were actually not considered

Syntactic units can go into 3 types of syntactic relations.

Coordination (SR1) – syntagmatic relations of independence. SR1 can be observed on the phrase, sentence and text levels. Coordination may be symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric coordination is characterized by complete interchangeability of its elements – pens and pencils.

Asymmetric coordination occurs when the position of elements is fixed: ladies and gentlemen.

Forms of connection within SR1 may be

1. copulative (you and me),

2. disjunctive (you or me),

4. causative-consecutive (sentence and text level only).

Subordination (SR2) – syntagmatic relations of dependence. SR2 are established between the constituents of different linguistic rank. They are observed on the phrase and sentence level.

Subordination may be of three different kinds:

2. objective (to see a house)

3. attributive (a beautiful flower).

Forms of subordination:

1. agreement (this book – these books),

2. government (help us),

3. adjournment (the use of modifying particles just, only, even, etc.)

4. enclosure (the use of modal words and their equivalents really, after all, etc.).

Predication (SR3) – syntagmatic relations of interdependence.

Predication may be of two kinds:

primary (sentence level)

secondary (phrase level).

Primary predication is observed between the subject and the predicate of the sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of the verb and nominal elements within the sentence. Secondary predication serves the basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial word-groups (predicative complexes).

Syntax deals with the rules governing combinations of words in sentences.

Basic syntactic notions:

Syntactic unit

Is always a combination that has at least two constituents: word-group, a clause, a sentence, and a text

Hierarchical units – the units of a lower level serve the building material for the units of a higher level

Units of two-fold nature: content side – syntactic meaning; expression side – syntactic form

Units of communicative and non-communicative nature: word-groups, clauses – non-communicative; sentences, texts – communicative

Syntactic meaning

The meaning of the structure

The meaning of the relations between constituents of syntactic unit

The meaning of classes of words which realize syntactical and lexical valency

E.g.: Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe…

Syntactic form

Pattern, scheme, distributional formuld

Green grass (A+N)

To cut grass (V+N)

Alice played the ball (N1+V+N2)

Syntactic function

Is the function of a unit on the basis of which it is included to a lager unit: in the word-group a smart student the word smart is in subordinate attributive relations to the head element.

In traditional terms it is used to denote syntactic function of a unit within the sentence (subject, predicate, etc.)

## 9. Grammatical (morphological) categories

The Grammatical category

- is the opposition between mutually exclusive grammatical forms expressing general grammatical meaning: boy - boys.

- Is a dialectical unity of grammatical meaning and grammatical form.

correlates with the objective and conceptual reality

- Those grammatical categories that have references in the objective reality are called referential grammatical categories, e.g.: grammatical category of number.

- The grammatical categories that correlate only with the conceptual reality are called significational, e.g. grammatical categories of mood and degree.

- In the process of communication gr. categories may undergo the processes of:

Transposition, the use of a linguistic unit in an unusual environment or in the function: he is coming tomorrow.

## 10. Criteria for establishing part of speech: semantic, formal, functional. Notional, functional and form parts of speech

The parts of speech are classes of words, all the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of other problem of word classification into parts of speech still remains one of the most controversial problems in modern linguistics. The artitude of grammarians with regard to parts of speech and the basis of their classification varied a good deal at different times. Only in English grammarians have been vacillating between 3 and. 13 parts of speech. There are four approaches to the problem: Classical; Functional; Distributional; Complex,

In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated according to three criteria: semantic, formal and functional. This approach may be defined as complex.

The semantic criterion presupposes the grammatical meaning of the whole class of words (general grammatical meaning).

The formal criterion reveals paradigmatic properties: relevant grammatical categories, the form of the words, their specific inflectional and derivational features.

The functional criterion concerns the syntactic function of words in the sentence and their combinability.

The lexemes of a part of speech are united by their meaning. This meaning is a category-forming one. Therefore, it is referred to as categorical meaning.

Lexemes that have the meaning of substance or thingness are nouns, those having the meaning of property are adjectives; those having the meaning of process are verbs; those having the meaning of circumstantial property are adverbs. As categorical meaning is derived from lexemes, it is often called lexico-grammatical meaning. In the surface, lexico-grammatical meaning finds outward expression.

For instance, the meaning of substance, or thingness, is realized by the following lexico-grammatical morphemes:-er,-ist,-ness,-ship,- ment. It is also realized by specific grammatical forms constituting the grammatical categories of number and case. These outward features are a formal criterion of classification. The functional criterion concerns the syntactic role of a word in the sentence. In accordance with the said criteria, we can classify the words of the English language into notional and functional. To the notional parts of speech belong the noun, the adjective, the numeral, the verb, and the adverb. To the functional parts of speech belong the article, the pronoun, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal words, and the interjection. The notional parts of speech present open classes while the functional parts of speech present closed classes, i.e. the 19 number of items constituting the notional word-classes is not limited while the number of items constituting the functional word-classes is limited and can be given by the list.

The division of language units into notion and function words reveals the interrelation of lexical and grammatical types of meaning. In notional words the lexical meaning is predominant. In function words the grammatical meaning dominates over the lexical one. However, in actual speech the border line between notional and function words is not always clear cut. Some notional words develop the meanings peculiar to function words - e.g. semi-notional words – to turn, to get, etc.

Notional words constitute the bulk of the existing word stock while function words constitute a smaller group of words. Although the number of function words is limited (there are only about 50 of them in Modern English), they are the most frequently used units. It will be obvious that the system of English parts of speech as presented here is not the only one possible. All depends on which feature we want to base our classification.

## 11. The noun as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant classes of nouns. Morphological, semantic and syntactic properties of the noun

The noun is the central lexical unit of language. It is the main nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form and grammatical catrgories) and syntactical (functions, distribution).

Case, number, and gender

In sentences, noun phrases may function in a variety of different ways, the most obvious being as subjects or objects. For example, in the sentence "John wrote me a letter", "John" is the subject, and "me" and "letter" are objects (of which "letter" is a noun and "me" a pronoun). These different roles are known as noun cases. Variant forms of the same noun—such as "he" (subject) and "him" (object)—are called declensions.

The number of a noun indicates how many objects the noun refers to. In the simplest case, number distinguishes between singular ("man") and plural ("men"). Some languages, like Arabic (and also Saami and Aleut ) also distinguish dual from plural.

Many languages (though not English) have a concept of noun gender, also known as noun class, whereby every noun is designated as, for example, masculine or feminine.

Semantic features of the noun. The noun possesses the grammatical meaning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification nouns fall into several subclasses:

1. According to the type of nomination they may be proper and common;

2. According to the form of existence they may be animate and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human.

3. According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable.

This set of subclasses cannot be put together into one table because of the different principles of classification.

Morphological features of the noun. In accordance with the morphological structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple, derived ( stem + affix, affix + stem – thingness); compound ( stem+ stem – armchair ) and composite ( the Hague ). The noun has morphological categories of number and case. Some scholars admit the existence of the category of gender.

Syntactic features of the noun. The noun can be used un the sentence in all syntactic functions but predicate. Speaking about noun combinability, we can say that it can go into right-hand and left-hand connections with practically all parts of speech. That is why practically all parts of speech but the verb can act as noun determiners. However, the most common noun determiners are considered to be articles, pronouns, numerals, adjectives and nouns themselves in the common and genitive case.

## 12. The category of number. Formal and functional features of the category of number. The problem of number in different subclasses of the noun

The category of number is expressed by the opposition of the plural form of the noun to the singular form of the noun. The strong member of this binary opposition is the plural, its productive formal mark being the suffix -(e)s. The other, non-productive ways of expressing the number opposition are vowel interchange in several relict forms (man – men, tooth – teeth), the archaic suffix -(e)n supported by phonemic interchange in a couple of other relict forms (ox – oxen, child – children), the correlation of individual singular and plural suffixes in a limited number of borrowed nouns (formula – formulae, phenomenon – phenomena). In some cases the plural form of the noun is homonymous with the singular form (sheep, deer, fish).

The grammatical category of number

- is realized through the opposition: the singular form :: the plural form;

- is restricted in its realization by the dependent implicit grammatical meaning of countableness/uncountableness;

- is realized only within subclass of countable nouns.

The singular form may denote:

- oneness (individual separate object): a pin;

- generalization (the meaning of the whole class): The dog is a domestic animal);

- indiscreteness (or uncountableness): rain, water.

The plural form may denote:

- the existence of several objects: books;

- the inner discreteness: trousers;

- a set of several objects: wheels of the vehicle;

- Various types of referent: wines, steels.

All Nouns may be subdivided into three groups:

1. The nouns in which the opposition of explicit countability/uncountability is expressed: book :: books;

2. The nouns in which this opposition is not explicitly expressed but is revealed by syntactical and lexical correlation in the context. There are two groups here: Singularia tantum; Pluralia tantum.

3. The nouns with homogenous number forms. The number opposition is not expressed formally but is revealed only lexically and syntactically in the context: Look! A sheep is eating grass. Look! The sheep are eating grass.

Singularia tantum (only singular)

- Whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, food, fruit;

- Fluids: water, tea, milk;

- Solids: ice, butter, cheese;

- Gases: air, smog, smoke;

- Fields of study: chemistry, mathematics;

- Names of diseases: measles.

Pluralia tantum (only plural)

- names of objects consisting of several parts: jeans, pants, scales;

- nouns expressing collective meaning: tidings, earnings, goods, wages;

- Some diseases and abnormal states of the body: measles, creeps.

 classification example comments Countable nouns a bird - birds have plural, need determiner Uncountable nouns happiness, light no plural, usually no determiner Singular nouns the moon, a day no plural, need determiner Plural nouns clothes no singular Collective nouns the public, the staff either singular or plural verb Proper nouns Mary, London start with capital letter

## 13. The category of case. The evolution of theoretical interpretations of the category of case in English

Case expresses the relation of a word to another word in the word-group or sentence (my sister’s coat). The category of case correlates with the objective category of possession. The case category in English is realized through the opposition: The Common Case :: The Possessive Case (sister :: sister’s). However, in modern linguistics the term “genitive case” is used instead of the “possessive case” because the meanings rendered by the “s” sign are not only those of possession. The scope of meanings rendered by the Genitive Case is the following:

a) Possessive Genitive: Mary’s father – Mary has a father,

b) Subjective Genitive: The doctor’s arrival – The doctor has arrived,

c) Objective Genitive: The man’s release – The man was released,

d) Adverbial Genitive: Two hour’s work – X worked for two hours,

e) Equation Genitive: a mile’s distance – the distance is a mile,

f) Genitive of destination: children’s books – books for children,

g) Mixed Group: yesterday’s paper

Nick’s school cannot be reduced to one nucleus

John’s word

To avoid confusion with the plural, the marker of the genitive case is represented in written form with an apostrophe. This fact makes possible disengagement of –s form from the noun to which it properly belongs. E.g.: The man I saw yesterday’s son, where -s is appended to the whole group (the so-called group genitive). It may even follow a word which normally does not possess such a formant, as in somebody else’s book.

There is no universal point of view as to the case system in English. Different scholars stick to a different number of cases.

1. There are two cases. The Common one and The Genitive;

2. There are no cases at all, the form s is optional because the same relations may be expressed by the ‘of-phrase’: the doctor’s arrival – the arrival of the doctor;

3. There are three cases: the Nominative, the Genitive, the Objective due to the existence of objective pronouns me, him, whom;

4. Case Grammar. Ch.Fillmore introduced syntactic-semantic classification of cases. They show relations in the so-called deep structure of the sentence. According to him, verbs may stand to different relations to nouns. There are 6 cases:

1) Agentive Case (A) John opened the door;

2) Instrumental case (I) The key opened the door; John used the key to open the door;

3) Dative Case (D) John believed that he would win (the case of the animate being affected by the state of action identified by the verb);

4) Factitive Case (F) The key was damaged ( the result of the action or state identified by the verb);

5) Locative Case (L) Chicago is windy;

6) Objective case (O) John stole the book.

## 14. The problem of gender in English. Personal pronouns as gender classificators of noun. Sex distinctions in the system of the noun

The Problem of Gender in English

- B. Ilyish, F. Palmer, and E. Morokhovskaya - nouns have no category of gender in Modern English.

- M. Blokh, John Lyons admit the existence of the category of gender: the neuter (non-person) gender, the masculine gender, the feminine gender.

- the meaning of gender may be expressed by different means:

- lexically: man –woman, cock (rooster) – hen, bull-cow, Arthur, Ann, etc.

- by the addition of a word: grandfather –grandmother, manservant – maidservant, male cat – female cat or he-cat – she –cat;

- by the use of suffixes: host – hostess, hero –heroine, tiger – tigress.

Gender in Modern English

1. The lexico - grammatical category of gender existed only in OE but in Middle English this category was lost;

2. In Modern English we find only lexico-semantic meanings of gender;

3. English has certain lexical and syntactic means to express a real biological sex.

A language has 'gender-specific pronouns' when personal pronouns have different forms according to the gender of their referents.

The English language has three gender-specific pronouns in the 3rd. person singular, whose declined forms are also gender-specific: he (masculine), she (feminine), and it (neuter, used for objects, abstractions, and most animals). The other English pronouns (I, you, they...) do not make gender distinctions; i.e., they are genderless or gender-neutral.

Sex distinctions

Gender can refer to the (biological) condition of being male or female, or less commonly hermaphrodite or neuter, as applied to humans, animals, and plants. In this sense, the term is a synonym for sex, a word that has undergone a usage shift itself, having become a synonym for sexual intercourse.

## 15. General characteristics of the verb as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant subclasses of verbs (transitive-intransitive, terminative/non-terminative)

Verb is a part of speech that denotes an action,

General implicit lexico-gammatical meaning – verbiality

Implicit grammatical meanings 1)- terminative amply a limit beyond which an action can’t continue. (to break).

- non-terminative denote an action which don’t amply any limit. (to love, to live, to posses).

2) - transitive which can take:

a) a direct object

b) direct and indirect object.

c) prepositional object

intransitive verbs can’t take a direct object.

Functions – the finite predicate for finite verbs and other than verbal functions for non-finite verbs

It has the following grammatical categories:

- person - aspect

- number - voice

- tense - mood

These categories may be expressed by means of affixes, innaflexions (change of the route vowel) and by form words. According to the functional verbs perform in the sentence; they can form finite (особові) and non-finite forms.

The Verb classifications

According to the nature of predication - finite - non-finite verbs: e.g. go – going/ The finite form can be used as the predicate of the sentence. The non-finite can’t be used as the predicate of the sentence, they are called “verbals” (Participle I, II, Infinitive, Gerund).

According to the morphological Structure - simple (to jump); derivative (to overcome);

composite (to blackmail); phrasal (to give a laugh) Another example - derivative (rewrite, undo); - compound (day-dream, brain-beat); - composite (give up, sit down).

According to the Verb-form derivation - simple (conversion: smile - to smile); sound-replacive (blood- to bleed); stress-replacive (import - to import); phrasal (to smoke - to have a smoke)

According to the functional significance - notional, semi-notional, functional/ notional verbs – always have a lexical meaning of their own and have an independent syntactical function in the sentence (may be used as a simple predicate).

auxiliary verbs – have only grammatical function used in analytical form.link verbs – which have lost their lexical meaning to some extend and are used in compound nominal predicate.

According to the valent properties (directionality)    - verbs of non-directed action, verbs of directed action

According to the invariant lexico-semantic meaning - verbs of motion, mental activity, feelings, etc.

## 16. Syntagmatic properties of verbs

Syntactic classifications.According to syntagmatic properties (valency) verbs can be of obligatory and optional valency, and thus they may have some directionality or be devoid of any directionality. In this way, verbs fall into the verbs non-directed (personal: He sniffed. Impersonal – It rains. Reflective – He dresses. Reciprocal – They met. Passive – It sells well.) and non-directed action (Objective – He shook my hand. Addressee – He called me. Adverbial – I won't be long. Mixed – He put his hat on the table.)

## 17. Finite and non-finite forms of the verb. The category of finitude

##### Finite Verbs

A finite verb (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb that has a subject, this means that it can be the main verb in a sentence. It shows tense (past / present etc) or number (singular / plural).

For example:-

I live in Germay. (I is the subject - live describes what the subject does - live is a finite verb).

##### Non-Finite Verbs

A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The only non-finite verb forms are the infinitive (indicated by to), the gerund or the participle.

For example:-

I travelled to Germany to improve my German. (To improve is in the infinitive form).

###### Finite verb forms

Finite verb forms are marked by inflection and indicate person, number and tense. A finite verb can be the single main verb in a sentence.

The finite forms of, for example, the verb go are:

- go (present tense in all persons except the third person singular)

###### Non-finite verb forms

Non-finite verb forms do not indicate person, number or tense.

The non-finite forms of the verb go are:

- go (infinitive)

I can't go with you.

Do you really go out with her?

I didn't go to work today.

I want to go home.

- going (gerund)

I like going to the cinema.

Carol suggested goingfor a walk.

Going faster would have been really dangerous. gone (past participle)

## 18. The verbal category of person. The verbal category of number

As there are relatively many English verb tenses, verbs in English come in many forms that provide different shades of meaning. However, English verbs comprise a much easier verb system than that of other languages that have distinct inflectional verb endings for different persons and number, or even change the verb stem with various tenses and aspects. In English only one verb ending remained, for verbs in the third person singular in the Present Simple tense.

The verb-predicate agreed with the subject of the sentence in two grammatical categories: number and person. The category of person was made up of three forms: the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd, and the category of number – of two: singular and plural.

 Categories Type Examples Person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person I go You go She goes Number Singular Plural He has written They have written

## 19. The category of tense in English. Tense oppositions. Absolute and relative meanings of English tense-forms

The category of tense is a verbal category that reflects the objective category of time. The essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it relates the time of the action, event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to the time of the utterance (the time of the utterance being 'now ' or the present moment). The tense category is realized through the oppositions. The binary principle of oppositions remains the basic one in the correlation of the forms that represent the grammatical category of tense. The present moment is the main temporal plane of verbal actions.

Generally speaking, the major tense-distinction in English is undoubtedly that which is traditionally described as an opposition of past::present. But this is best regarded as a contrast of past:: non-past. Quite a lot of scholars do not recognize the existence of future tenses, because what is described as the 'future' tense in English is realized by means of auxiliary verbs will and shall. Although it is undeniable that will and shall occur in many sentences that refer to the future, they also occur in sentences that do not. And they do not necessarily occur in sentences with a future time reference. That is why future tenses are often treated as partly modal.

## 20. The problems of perfect

- Is also called the category of Phase or Temporal activity;

- It finds its realization through the opposition Perfect Phase: Non Perfect Phase;

- It is a significational grammatical category;

- It is closely connected with the category of Tense and does not exist separately;

- This realization of the category is restricted by the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativness or non-terminativness of the verb.

Generally speaking, the major tense-distinction in English is undoubtedly that which is traditionally described as an opposition of past::present. But this is best regarded as a contrast of past:: non-past

The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect, which refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time).

For example, "I have gone to the cinema" implies both that a previous action happened ("I went to the cinema") and that a current state resulted ("I am now in the cinema"). This differs from the simple "I went to the cinema", which implies only that an action happened, with no relevance to the present. The form "I have gone" is referred to as a present perfect, meaning present tense, perfect aspect. (It is considered present tense, not past tense, since the resulting state is in the present.)

## 21. The category of aspect. Aspect opposition

The category of aspect is a linguistic representation of the objective category of Manner of Action. It is realized through the opposition Continuous: Non-Continuous (Progressive::Non-Progressive). The realization of the category of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs. It is restricted by the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness - nonterm.

There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with progressive aspect, even in those contexts in which the majority of verbs necessarily take the progressive form. Among the so-called ‘non-progressive’ verbs are think, understand, know, hate, love, see, taste, feel, possess, own, etc. The most striking characteristic that they have in common is the fact that they are ‘stative’ - they refer to a state of affairs, rather than to an action, event or process. It should be observed, however, that all the ‘non-­progressive' verbs take the progressive aspect under particular circumstances. As the result of internal transposition verbs of non-progressive nature can be found in the Continuous form: Now I'm knowing you. I’m loving it – stylistic shift. Generally speaking the Continuous form has at least two semantic features - duration (the action is always in progress) and definiteness (the action is always limited to a definite point or period of time).

## 22. The category of voice. Voice opposition. The number of voices in English

As a grammatical category voice is the form of the verb which shows the relation between the action and its subject indicating whether the action is performed by the subject or passes on to it. Accordingly there are two voices in English: the active and the passive. The active voice shows that the action is performed by its subject, that the subject is the doer of the action. The passive voice shows that the subject is acted upon, that it is the recipient of the action.

The category of voice is realized through the opposition Active voice::Passive voice. The realization of the voice category is restricted because of the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity. In accordance with this meaning, all English verbs should fall into transitive and intransitive.

In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

For example,

The cat ate the mouse

is active, but

The mouse was eaten by the cat

is passive.

In a transformation from an active voice sentence to an equivalent passive voice construction, the subject and the direct object switch places. The direct object is promoted to subject, and the subject is demoted to an optional complement. In the above examples, the mouse is the direct object in the active voice version, the subject in the passive version. The subject of the active voice version, the cat, becomes part of a prepositional phrase in the passive version of the sentence, and could be left out entirely. In the English language, the passive voice is periphrastic; that is, it is not a single word form, but rather a construction making use of other word forms. Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb. In other languages, such as Latin, the passive voice is simply marked on the verb by inflection: the passive voice uses different verb endings than the active voice.

## 23. The category of mood. The problem of mood opposition. Modality

It is one of the most controversial problems. The main theoretical difficulty is due:

1) to the coexistence in Modern Engl. Of both synthetical and analytical forms of the verb with the same grammatical meaning of unreality;

2) to the fact that there are verbal forms homonymous with the Past Indef and Past Perf of the Indicative Mood which are employed to express unreality.

3) There are analytical forms of the subjunctive with the auxiliaries should, would,may(might) which are devoid of any lexical meaning.

H. Sweet- 3 moods:

1. conditional m- the combination of should and would+infin, when used in the principle clause of conditional sent-s.

2. permissive m- the combination of may/ might+ infinitive.

3. compulsive m- the combination of the finite form of the verb “to be” with the supine: If it tain I do not know what shall we do.

G.O. Curme- 3 moods:

1. the Indicative M represents Something as a fact.

2. the present Subjunctive is associated with the idea of hopeless, likelihood.

3. the past Subjunctive indicates doubt, unlikelihood, unreality: I desire that he go at once. I fear he may come too late.

Smirnitsky-6 moods:

1indicative 2imperative 3subjunctive I 4subjunctive II 5conditional 6 suppositional

Modality is concerned with the writer’s attitude towards what he or she is asserting about the state of the world…

…in so far as they believe it to be true or false: how certain they are of what they are saying, whether it is definite knowledge or a matter of speculation, whether it is possibly, probably or definitely true; a deduction, a prediction, or a supposition.

## 1. Modal Verbs:would

- can\will\could\should\must\might\may\shall

e.g. “I might play football.” or “The homework should be enjoyable as well as educational.” or “There should be a set of traffic-lights around the next corner.”

(Modal verbs can also express degrees of obligation and whether or not something is necessary, desirable, permitted or forbidden: “You should go to the cinema.” or “You can go to the cinema.” or “You might go to the cinema.”

## 2. Verb Phrases:ought to\used to\was to\are/is to\had better\have to\have got to\would rather

- would just as soon\would sooner

## 3. Other Common verbs which can express modality:

Appear\believe\expect\feel\gather\guess\know\look\promise\reckon\seem\sound

5. Adverbials of Modality\for definite\for sure\for certain\of course\to be honest\in truth

6. Subordinate clauses\as far as I recall\in so far as I can be certain\when I think back

- if it can be credited\though it should be taken with a pinch of salt\whether it is the case or not

…where an author signals modality we get a sharp and definite insight into his or her attitude to the topic under discussion; conversely, you can carefully qualify anything you assert through the use of modal verbs, modal adverbs, adverbs of modality and through the use of subordinate clauses which qualify the main clause of the sentence.

## 24. Syntax as a part of grammar. Kinds of syntactic theories

Syntax deals with the rules governing combinations of words in sentences, texts. The main unit is sentence (the smallest communicative unit).

Syntax looks at the rules of a language, particularly how the various parts of sentences go together. While similar to morphology, which looks at how the smallest meaningful linguistic units, called morphemes, are formed into complete words, syntax examines how fully formed words fit together to create complete and understandable sentences. Understanding a language's syntax is important for understanding what makes a sentence grammatically correct.

Perhaps the most important aspect of syntax is how the various parts of speech connect together. Every language has rules that dictate where certain types of words can be used in a sentence, and how to interpret the resulting sentence. A new language learner has to understand how this word order is structured, which can be difficult for someone used to a different language. In English, the basic order is “Subject-Verb-Object”.Understanding linguistic rules allows speakers and writers to effectively communicate ideas to others. Syntactical theories

- Categorial syntax studies ways and types of parts of speech combination.

- Structural syntax studies the inner structural peculiarities of syntactical units.

- Generative or Transformational Syntax reveals mechanisms of sentence generation.

- Constructive syntax studies the constructive value (obligatory or optional) of a syntactic unit.

- Functional or communicative syntax studies the functional aspect of a syntactic unit (functional sentence perspective).

- Pragmatic syntax studies the way language is used in particular contexts to achieve particular goals.

- Text linguistics studies the text as a syntactic unit, its main features and peculiarities, different ways of its analysis. Discourse analysis focuses on the study of language use with reference to the social and psychological factors that influence communication.

Generative or Transformational Syntax (Harris, Chomsky) reveals mechanisms of sentence generation. Two main problems: 1 the establishment of the domain of kernels;

2. the establishment of the set of the transformations for deriving all the other sentences.

The main point of the Transformational-Generative Grammar: The endless variety of sentences in a language can be reduced to a finite number of kernels by means of transformations. Number of kernels: from 6 to 39. The kernel is the elementary sentence which consists of obligatory sentence parts predetermined by the valency of the verb. The elementary sentences form the basis for syntactic derivation. Syntactic derivation lies in producing more complex sentences by means of syntactic processes. They may be internal and external.

External Syntactic Processes

- Extension: She gave a smile. – She gave a pleasant smile.

- Adjoinment: He was the same. – He was just the same.

- Enclosure: It was nice. – It was nice, really.

Internal Syntactic Processes

- Expansion: addition: His dreams came true – His dreams and hopes came true.

- Specification: He’ll come tomorrow – He’ll come tomorrow at 9.

- Complication: I see it. – I can see it. Replacement: I like tea. – So do I.

- Representation: Would you like to go there? – I’d love to.

- Ellipsis: Where are you going? – To the movies.

- Contamination: He left. He was angry. – He left angry.

6 kernels in English : NVJane dances. NVAJane is happy. NVNJane is a student. NVNJane read a book. NVN1N2Jane gave the man a book. NV prep. NThe book is on the table.

Transforms are the constructions which are derived from kernels.

- T- A (affirmation): I had fun. – I did have fun.

- T- Not (negation): I had fun. – I did not have fun.

- T – Q (interrogation): Do I have fun?

Constructional Syntax – Pocheptsov. The verb is a central unit of the sentence structure.The verb has obligatory environment: the verb “to buy” is always followed by a direct object, He bought a book.It also can have some optional environment: He bought a book in the nearest shop.

## 25. Basic syntactic notions. Syntactic units, syntactic relations, syntactic connections

The relation between a unit and other units (inner relations between units). No unit can be used independently; it serves as an element in the system of other units. This kind of meaning is called syntactic. Formal relation of units to one another is studied by syntactics (or syntax). Only inner (syntactic) relations between linguistic units served the basis for linguistic analysis while the reference of words to the objective reality and language users were actually not considered

Syntactic units can go into 3 types of syntactic relations.

Coordination (SR1) – syntagmatic relations of independence. SR1 can be observed on the phrase, sentence and text levels. Coordination may be symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric coordination is characterized by complete interchangeability of its elements – pens and pencils. Asymmetric coordination occurs when the position of elements is fixed: ladies and gentlemen. Forms of connection within SR1 may be copulative (you and me), disjunctive (you or me), adversative (strict but just) and causative-consecutive (sentence and text level only).

Subordination (SR2) – syntagmatic relations of dependence. SR2 are established between the constituents of different linguistic rank. They are observed on the phrase and sentence level. Subordination may be of three different kinds – adverbial (to speak slowly), objective (to see a house) and attributive (a beautiful flower). Forms of subordination may also be different – agreement (this book – these books), government (help us), adjournment (the use of modifying particles just, only, even, etc.) and enclosure (the use of modal words and their equivalents really, after all, etc.).

Predication (SR3) – syntagmatic relations of interdependence. Predication may be of two kinds – primary (sentence level) and secondary (phrase level). Primary predication is observed between the subject and the predicate of the sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of the verb and nominal elements within the sentence. Secondary predication serves the basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial word-groups (predicative complexes).

## 26. Coordination. The notion of parataxis. The word-group theory

Coordination (Syntagmatic Relations1) – SR of independence;

- Symmetric coordination: complete interchange ability of its elements – pens and pencils.

- Asymmetric coordination occurs when the position of elements is fixed: ladies and gentlemen.

Forms of connection:

- copulative: you and me;

- disjunctive: you or me;

- causative-consecutive: sentence and text level only.

Parataxis is a literary technique, in writing or speaking, that favors short, simple sentences, with the use of coordinating rather than subordinating conjunctions.

The sun was shining brightly. We went for a walk.

The sun was shining brightly; we went for a walk.

The sun was shining brightly, and we went for a walk.

The sun was shining brightly, so we went for a walk.

In the first example, the two sentences are independent expressions, while in the last example they are dependent. However the connection of thought in the first examples is just as real as in the last ones, where it is explicitly expressed via the syntax of subordination.

The word group

- is a combination of at least two notional words which do not constitute the sentence but are syntactically connected.

The word group

- Is a binary formation of the two linearly ordered constituents which stand in SR;

- Is a combination of words linked together on the basis of a definite type of syntactic connection which is characterized by nominative function and is capable of forming a sentence.

word group vs sentence

- Has no peculiar intonation;

- Names separate objects of the objective reality;

- Is not a communicative unit.

- Has intonation;

- Names proposition;

- Is a communicative unit.

word group vs word

- Naming unit of different denotates;

- each component can undergo grammatical changes without destroying the identity of the whole unit:

- e.g.: to solve the problem – to solve the problems.

- Naming unit;

- No separation of the parts of the word.

- e.g.: a black bird – чорний птах, a blackbird – дрізд.

Types of Word-Groups

- According to the structure: simple (a tall man) and complex (a very tall man);

- According to the type of SR: predicative, coordinate and subordinate;

- According to the morphological classes of the head word-groups: NP, VP, AP, DP;

- According to the syntactical function performed: subjective, objective, adverbial, predicative, e.g.: Young John studies in London.

Classifications of WORD GROUPS

- The type of Syntagmatic relations: coordinate, subordinate, predicative WGs.

- Coincidence of the function of the group with the function of its constituents: endocentric and exocentric WGs.

- Means of connection: syndetic and asyndetic WGs.

- The structure: simple, expanded, extended and mixed.

## 27. Subordinate word combinations. The notion of hypotaxis

The word group is a combination of at least two notional words which do not constitute the sentence but are syntactically connected. It is a binary formation of the two linearly ordered constituents which stand in SR, a combination of words linked together on the basis of a definite type of syntactic connection which is characterized by nominative L function and is capable of forming a sentence.

Classification of word groups

According to the structure - simple and complex

According to the type of SR - predicative, coordinate and subordinate

According to the morphological classes of the head word-groups - (NP) – a cup of tea, verb-phrases (VP) – to run fast, to see a house, adjective phrases (AP) – good for you, adverbial phrases (DP) – so quickly, pronoun phrases (IP) – something strange, nothing to do.

According to the syntactical function performed - subjective, objective, adverbial, predicative

Subordinate word-groups are based on the relations of dependence between the constituents. This presupposes the existence of a governing Element which is called the head and the dependent element which is called the adjunct (in noun-phrases) or the complement (in verb-phrases).

The formation of the subordinate word-group depends on the valency of its constituents. Valency is a potential ability of words to combine. Actual realization of valency in speech is called combinability.

In linguistics, subordination is a complex syntactic construction in which one or moreclauses are dependent on the main clause, such as The dog ran home after it had played with the ball. The italicized text is the subordinate clause.

Hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but "unequal" constructs (hypo="beneath", taxis="arrangement"), A common example of syntactic expression of hypotaxis is subordination in a complex sentence. Hypotactic style allows syntax and structure to supply useful information. Instead of simple juxtaposition of elements by way of simple and compound sentences, hypotactic structures rely more on complex sentences to establish relationships among elementsThe subordinating style orders its components in relationships of causality (one event or state is caused by another), temporality (events and states are prior or subsequent to one another), and precedence (events and states are arranged in hierarchies of importance).

## 28. Syntactic processes

Verbs of non-directed actions:

Personal: He sniffed.

Impersonal: It rains.

Reflexive: He dressed.

Reciproca l: They met.

Passive: The book sells well.

Verbs of directed actions:

Objectiv e: He shook my hand.

Mixed: He put his hat on the table.

Syntactic processes may be internal and external. Internal syntactic processes involve no changes in the structure of the parts of the sentence. They occur within one and the same part of the sentence (subject, etc.). External syntactic processes are those that cause new relations within a syntactic unit and lead to appearance of a new part of the sentence.

The internal syntactic processes are:

Expansion Compression

# Replacement – the use of the words that have a generalized meaning: one, do, etc, I’d like to take this one.

Representation – a part of the syntactic unit represents the whole syntactic unit: Would you like to come along? I’d love to.

EllipsisWhere are you going? To the movies.

The external syntactic processes are:

Extension - a nice dress – a nice cotton dress.

### Ajoinment - the use of specifying words, most often particles: He did it – Only he did it.

Enclosure – inserting modal words and other discourse markers: after all, anyway, naturally, etc.

## 29. Nominal word combinations. Noun phrases with preposed adjuncts

The word group is a combination of at least two notional words which do not constitute the sentence but are syntactically connected. It is a binary formation of the two linearly ordered constituents which stand in SR; a combination of words linked together on the basis of a definite type of syntactic connection which is characterized by nominative function and is capable of forming a sentence.

Word group has no peculiar intonation; names separate objects of the objective reality; is not a communicative unit; naming unit of different denotates; each component can undergo grammatical changes without destroying the identity of the whole unit: to solve the problem – to solve the problems.

Types of Word-Groups

- According to the structure: simple (a tall man) and complex (a very tall man);

- According to the type of SR: predicative, coordinate and subordinate;

- According to the morphological classes of the head word-groups: NP, VP, AP, DP;

- According to the syntactical function performed: subjective, objective, adverbial, predicative.

A nominal group is a grammatical unit or group that can be used as a noun in the English language. A noun is typically surrounded by other words that describe or reflect the character of the noun, which make up a noun phrase.

The Noun Phrase Is a kind of a subordinate type of phrases distinguished on the basis of its head: A Noun-head + an Adjunct;relations of modification.

Types of modification: Pre-modification: A + N, a wise man;Post-modification: N + A, time to arrive; Pre- and Post-modification: A+N+A, an interesting book on grammar.

N A the tea strong

N Ven the cup taken

N Ving the boy staying

N D the man behind

N Vinf the time to go

N Num room ten

N prep A the only man present

N prep N The center of the city

## 30. Nominal word combinations. Noun phrases with postposed adjuncts

In English scientific text attributive nominal word combinations (WC) such as n + n +... + N are widely used. Word combinations consisting of three, four and more components are frequently used on a level with widespread two component WC (such as n + N). In such WC a chain of nouns with dependent words and without them acts in a role of the left definition.

Under the term WC we should see any connection of two significant words, which are united group in grammatical and semantic relations. WC is an intermediate link between the word and the sentence.

In English language nominal WC are built according to the principle of a simple contact arrangement of grouped elements, without any change of their form.

English nominal WC are used more often than other various WC because of the valency, inherent in the noun, that means potential ability of a noun to make combinations with other words. Nominal attributive WC of this type includes left definitions, which are widespread in English scientific text. It is explained because English language belongs to languages, which have the tendency to put definition before determined word. Although in the structure of given type all nouns are located linearly as the chain, it is difficult without special training correctly define the borders of such WC and establish formally unexpressed structural and semantic connection between the members of such chain. During the analysis of word combinations it is possible to allocate the following types of WC with left prepositional definition from the point of view of their translation into Russian.

## 31. Verbal word combinations. Verbs of complete and incomplete predication. Types of verbal complements

The verb-phrase.

The VP is a definite kind of the subordinate phrase with the verb as the head. The verb is considered to be the semantic and structural centre not only of the VP but of the whole sentence as the verb plays an important role in making up primary predication that serves the basis for the sentence.

Classification of verb-phrases.

VPs can be classified according to the nature of their complements – verb complements may be nominal and adverbial. Consequently, we distinguish nominal, adverbial and mixed complementation.

Nominal complementation takes place when one or more nominal complements (nouns or pronouns) are obligatory for the realization of potential valency of the verb: to give smth. to smb., to phone smb., to hear smth.(smb.), etc.

Adverbial complementation occurs when the verb takes one or more adverbial elements obligatory for the realization of its potential valency: He behaved well, I live …in Kyiv (here).

Mixed complementation – both nominal and adverbial elements are obligatory: He put his hat on the table (nominal-adverbial).

1. The boy walks. 2. The rain falls.

In these sentences each of the verbs walks and falls, is of itself the complete predicate of the sentence.

Verbs which may be used as predicates, without the aid of other words, are called verbs of complete predication.

1. The boy is sick. 3. The dog seems cross.

2. The man looks tired. 4. Hungry wolves are voracious.

Here the verbs is, look, seems, and are, require the use of other words in order to form complete predicates.

Verbs which thus require the help of other words to form predicates are called verbs of incomplete predication.

The words sick, tired, cross, and voracious are the complements of the verbs with which they are used.

Words used with a verb of incomplete predication to complete the predicate are called the complement of the verb.

1. We are happy. 2. Mary became a scholar.

Here, happy, the complement of the verb are, is an adjective modifying we, the subject; and scholar, the complement of the verb became, is a noun meaning the same as Mary, the subject.

Adjectives like happy, used to complete the predicate, are called predicate adjectives.

Nouns like scholar, used to complete the predicate, are called predicate nouns.

1. The cross dog bit me. 2. The cook cut the bread. 3. The hungry cat caught the mouse.

In these sentences the word me tells whom the dog bit, the word bread tells what the cook cut, and the word mouse tells what the cat caught.

Me, bread, and mouse are the complements of the verbs bit, cut, and caught, as they denote the things that received the actions expressed by the verbs.

Nouns and pronouns used in this way are called the objects of the verbs.

Thus it appears that there are two kinds of verbs of incomplete predication:

1. Those whose complements are predicate adjectives or predicate nouns.

2. Those whose complements are objects of the verb.

1. The dog was in the house.

2. He seems to be well.

3. I think you told the truth.

In these sentences, the phrases in the house and to be well, and the clause you told the truth, are complements of the verbs was, seems, and think.

It thus appears that not only adjectives, nouns, and pronouns, but phrases and clauses, may be the complements of verbs of incomplete predication.

## 32. Predication. Primary and secondary predication. Predicative word combinations, predicative complexes. Syntactic process of complication

Predication

- Is one of the ways in which language describes things and situations connecting them with reality.

- Predication is the establishment of predicative relations between the Logical Subject and the Logical Predicate.

- The bearer of predication is PROPOSITION.

- Proposition is the main predicative form of thought.

Predication

- primary(sentence level): He goes to the University.

- secondary (phrase level): I saw him going to the University. I depend on your doing the work in time.

Predicative word combinations are distinguished on the basis of secondary predication. Like sentences, predicative word-groups are binary in their structure but actually differ essentially in their organization. The sentence is an independent communicative unit based on primary predication while the predicative word-group is a dependent syntactic unit that makes up a part of the sentence. The predicative word-group consists of a nominal element and a non-finite form of the verb: N + Vnon-fin.

Predicative complexes

The For-to-Infinitive Constructions

is a predicative constr. in which the nominal is introduced by the preposition FOR, while the predicate part is an infinitive with the particle TO. The construction functions as:

1) Subject - it usually follows introductory IT and is very seldom placed before the predicate ( It was practically impossible for them to meet anyboy)

2) Predicative - the usual link-verb is TO BE (That is not for me to decide.)

3) Attribute - it modifies nouns or indefinite and universal pronouns (She gave orders for everyone to stop packing.)

4) Object - the construction can be used as an indirect non-recipient object of certain verbs (to ask,to watch) and adjectives (anxious, eager, impatient, sorry, willing) ( I watched for him to appear through the bushes.)

a) of consequence (The chance was too good for Jack to miss it.)

b) of purpose ( I rang for you to show the lady out.)

The Gerundial Predicative Construction

is a predicative constr. in which the nominal part is generally a noun/noun-pronoun in the possessive case or a possessive pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The construction may be

1) Subject - is used either with or without introductory IT (Your doing nothing won't help anybody.)

2) Predicative - (The only way out will be his taking the job.)

3) Adv.modifier- is always introduced by a prepositions:

of time(After his being away for some time the crisis came.)

of concession ( In spite of its being cold the bushes swarmed with insects.)

of attendant circumstances ( The car slid away without my having to say anything.)

4) Attribute - is generally used with the preposition OF, although other prepositions are possible (The prospect of smo else getting a job moved them to strong moral indignation.)

5) Object - the construction may be either direct object to a verb or an indirect non-recipient object to a verb or adjective (She liked his worrying about his wife.)

Complication is a change of a syntactic unit structure (a member of a sentence) from a simple one into complex or compound one. Different parts of the sentence may be complicated: they drive in the country every weekend. They are likely to drive… they are said to drive…(predicate is complicated) he pushed the door. He pushed the door open. (object) Compound & complex structures are result of complication.

## 33. The simple sentence. Principal, secondary and detached parts of the sentence

A simple sentence contains one subject and one verb. The subject (sometimes called the object) comes before the verb. The verb comes after the subject to describe what the subject is doing or has done.

According to the constructional approach, not only the subject and the predicate but also all the necessary constituents of primary predication constitute the main parts because they are constructionally significant. Therefore, the secondary parts of the sentence are sometimes as necessary and important as the main ones. If we omit the object and the adverbial modifier in the following sentences they will become grammatically and semantically unmarked: Bill closed the door.

The elementary sentence coincides structurally with the so-called unexpanded simple sentence, a monopredicative sentence, which includes only obligatory nominative parts. The expanded simple sentence includes also some optional parts, i.e. supplementive modifiers, which do not violate the syntactic status of the simple sentence

In the basis of their representation in the outer structure of the sentence, sentences are subdivided into complete sentences and incomplete sentences (Who is there? – Your brother.)

The semantic classification of simple sentences is based on principal parts semantics. On the basis of subject categorial meaning, sentences are divided into impersonal, e.g.: It drizzles; There is no use crying over spilt milk; and personal; personal sentences are further subdivided into human and non-human. Human sentences are further subdivided into definite, e.g.: I know it; and indefinite, e.g.: One never knows such things for sure. Non-human sentences are further subdivided into animate, e.g.: A cat entered the room; and inanimate, e.g.: The wind opened the door. Impersonal sentences may be further subdivided into factual, e.g.: It drizzles; and perceptional, e.g. It looks like rain.

On the basis of predicate categorial meaning, sentences are divided into process featuring (“verbal”) and substance featuring (“nominal”); process featuring sentences are further subdivided into actional, e.g.: I play ball; and statal, e.g.: I enjoy your party; substance featuring sentences are further subdivided into factual, e.g.: She is clever; and perceptional, e.g.: She seems to be clever. As the examples show, the differences in subject categorial meaning are sustained by obvious differences in the subject-predicate combinability.

The syntactic functions or the members of the sentence are traditionally divided into principal (main) and secondary.

The principal parts of the sentence are the subject and the predicate, which modify each other: the subject is the “person” modifier of the predicate, and the predicate is the “process” modifier of the subject; they are interdependent.

The secondary parts are: the object – a substance modifier of the predicate; the attribute – a quality modifier of substantive parts, either the subject or the object; the adverbial modifier – a quality modifier of the predicate;

Detached - the apposition – a substance modifier of the subject; the parenthesis (parenthetical enclosure) - a detached speaker-bound modifier either of one of the nominative parts of the sentence or of the sentence in general; the address (addressing enclosure) – a modifier of the destination of the whole sentence; the interjection (interjectional enclosure) – an emotional modifier.

## 34. Simple and complex parts of the sentence

Parts of the sentence are notional sentence constituents which are in certain syntactic relations to other constituents or to the sentence as a whole.

Parts of the sentence:

1) principal parts of the sentence - the predication (the basic structure of the sentence),

2) secondary parts of the sentence extend or expand the basic structure.

Parts of the sentence are notional constituents: they name elements of events or situations denoted by the sentence: actions, states, participants and circumstances. The formal properties of parts of the sentence are the type of syntactic relations and the morphological expression.

Principal parts of the sentence are interdependent. The subject is structural centre of the sentence. The predicate agrees with the subject in person and number. The predicate is the semantic and communicative centre of the sentence.

Secondary parts of the sentence are modifiers of principal and other secondary parts: attributes are noun-adjuncts, objects and adverbial modifiers are primarily verb adjuncts. Besides the three “traditional” secondary parts, two more are singled out: the apposition and the objective predicative.

## 35. The paradigm of a simple sentence. Kernel and derived sentences. Syntactic processes

Syntactic processes.

The Sentence

- a syntactical level unit, a predicative unit, a complex language sign(context and expression sides) the minimal communicative unit.

- “the minimal syntactical construction , used in the acts of speech communication, characterized by predicativity and having a definite structural scheme” (Ivanova, Burlakova,Pocheptsova)

- “The independent unit of finite predication, which possesses communicative force and can occure as an independent unit of information” Morokhovskaya

*Predicativity

- is one of the ways in which language describes things and situations connecting them with reality.

- Predication is the establishment of predicative relations between the Logical Subject and the Logical Predicate.

- The bearer of predication is PROPOSITION,the main predicative form of thought.

Prepositional basis

Predicative words: stormy sea

Predicative w-grs: her running

Clause: when she runs

Sentence: she runs quickly.

Paragraph;

Text;

3 main groups of kernels:

NV kernel represents the actional proposition: I took a pen from the table.

N is A/N represents the attributional proposition: She is clever.

N is D represents the existential proposition: He is here.

Examples of Karnels (by Pocheptsov)

N V -he nodded

N V N –She took my hand

N V N1 N2 –He handed her the child

N V prep N –He looked at me

N V N1 prep N2 –I told her about it

N V N1 N2 prep N3 –I told you the truth about him

NV be Adv –He is there

NV be N Here is Gerald

N -Silence

Etc –Etc. (39 kernels)

A kernel sentence does not contain any optional expression and is simple in the sense that it is unmarked in mood, therefore, it is indicative. It is also unmarked in voice therefore it is active rather than passive. And, finally, it is unmarked in polarity therefore it is a positive rather than a negative sentence. An example of a kernel sentence is 'The man opened the door,' and an example of a non-kernel sentence is 'The man did not open the door.'"

## 36. Complex sentence as a polypredicative construction. Types of subordinate clauses

The complex sentence is a polypredicative construction built on the principle of subordination (hypotaxis). In paradigmatic presentation, the derivational history of the complex sentence is as follows: two or more base sentences are clausalized and joined into one construction; one of them performs the role of a matrix in relation to the others, the insert sentences. The matrix base sentence becomes the principal clause of the complex sentence and the insert sentences become its subordinate clauses, e.g.: The team arrived. + It caused a sensation. à When the team arrived, it caused a sensation.

The minimal complex sentence includes two clauses: the principal one and the subordinate one. This is the main type of complex sentences, first, in terms of frequency, and, second, in terms of its paradigmatic status, because a complex sentence of any volume can be analyzed into a combination of two-clause complex sentence units.

The principal clause positionally dominates the subordinate clause, which is embedded into it: even if the principal clause is incomplete and is represented by just one word, the subordinate clauses fill in the open positions, introduced by the principal clause, in the underlying simple sentence pattern, e.g.: What you see is what you get - What you see (the subject) is (the predicate) what you get (the object). Semantically, the two clauses are interconnected and form a semantico-syntactic unity: the existence of either of them is supported by the existence of the other.

The dominant positional status of the principal clause does not mean that it expresses the central informative part of the communication: any clause of a complex sentence can render its rheme or its theme. As in a simple sentence, in a neutral context the preceding part renders the starting point of communication, the theme, and the following part, placed near the end of the sentence, renders the most important information, the rheme, cf.: What he likes most about her is her smile. - Her smile is what he likes most about her. In the first sentence the principal part is rhematic, and in the second sentence the subordinate clause. Besides the clause-order, as with word-order in general, there are other means of expressing the correlative informative value of clauses in complex sentences, such as intonation, special constructions, emphatic particles and others.

The informative value of a principal clause may be reduced to the mere introduction of a subordinate clause; for example, the principal clause can perform the “phatic” function, i.e. the function of keeping up the conversation, of maintaining the immediate communicative connection with the listener, e.g.: I think you are a great parent; in this sentence, the basic information is rendered by the rhematic subordinate clause, while the principal clause is phatic, specifying the speaker’s attitude to the information.